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An Overview of Behaviorist Theory

            Behaviorist theory is  founded by J.B . Watson. Basically it is a psychological theory of native language learning. This theory was advanced in America as a new approach to psychology in the early decades of the 20th century by making a particular emphasis on the importance of verbal behaviour. This has received a considerable trust from the educational world of 1950s.

            Behavirist theory is originated from Pavlov’s experiment which indicates that stimulus and response work together. Ivan Pavlov, Behaviorisma Russioan Psychologiat, conducted a series of experiments in which he trained a dog to salivate when hearing a tuning fork through a procedure that he has come to be known as classical conditioning. For him, the procces of learning consisted of the formation of association betweeen stimuli and reflexive responses. In his classical experiments he trained a dog to associate the sound of a tuning fork fork with salivation until the dog acquired a conditioned response that is salivation at the sound  of the tuning fork. A previously neutral stimulus (the sound of the tuning fork) had acquired the power to elicit a response (salivation) that was originally elicited by another stimulus (the smell of food).

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Johari Window (SLPD assigment)

Name : Maula Akhadin
NIM  : A.320080273
Class : D

in this occasion I, as one of the students who take courses SLPD, commissioned by Mr. Abdillah to observe some of the people in the business implications of the observations of Johari Window in one's personality. The following results of my observations (to avoid 'ghibah', I was forced to disguise the name):

1. Rianto , my close friend from school days till now. in this ums he took psychology majors, so it can be ascertained as to our future story. with all the intelligence and expertise in psychology he is adept at putting themselves in existing communities. actually he's a good person, but with some communication behaviors, I put him on the spot 'Games Man' in the Johari Window is. yes, the Rianto has a character that mysterious when you're communicating with someone, especially with new people he knew. with a very calm demeanor, one can camouflaged that he was an intelligent. his most clever digging info from others, especially if people who talk to are people who speaks much, almost no time left to drain out information from others, the most remarkable of him is that he alawys answer the question with a 'question' , he reverse what people ask him. but despite that, he's good enough to get along with if we already know the true propagators.

2. arman, he was a neighbor of the boarding room with me, as is his nature that makes him close to anyone, even though the original style of his village did not want to miss, actually I am a bit confused in putting this position, but with some consideration, I put him in the 'open-minded', as with all what it was, he was the right person for when to communicate in both directions.

3. which is also still a boarding house with me, Hendri, wrote such a call,  he is fitting really when invited to talk together, because in addition to 'open-minded' he was also a humorist, he did not hesitate to tell his life but he is quite welcome when invited to confide in her friends, completely free-roaming second communication if the same again with him.

4. another friend of my boarding house, i call him Reno , he is really hard to socialize with other residents of boarding, to just smile when crossed just hard. if I describe him, he was nothing more than zombies. he just talk to people who really knew it. and certainly other people who tried to approach him first to get close to him. of all things in him, there is one of the most wonderful of him, he could have a girfriend.

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The Zoo Story

Name : Maula Akhadin
NIM  : A 320080273
Class : H

The Zoo Story

1. The Characters
a. Peter : A man in his early forties, married, embarrassed, childish, serious person.
b. Jerry : A man in late thirties, unmarried, insecure, verbally aggressive.

2. Plot
Tone of book is humorous. The Zoo Story is a confrontation between middle-class America and the outcasts of society. Jerry tries to teach Peter the realities of life that Peter has tried to ignore. He tries to teach Peter the nature of human existence and relationships. Through a serious of failed conversations and misinterpretations of the act of love, Jerry begins his experiment to see if the middle class Americas are animals after all.

3. Setting
Set in central park, New York.

4. Style
Mostly dialog, Person - rotating 1st, a lot of play on words, a lot of stream of consciousness, generic/vague references to death/punishment, moderately detailed references to deaths.

5. Theme/ issues
Jerry′ s problems and aims:
- he feels lonely
- he lacks company
- he has no one to talk to
- he feels misunderstood
- he desperately tries to come into contact with other people
- he is an outsider, utterly depressed, unhappy
- he is unable to establish a relationship with other people.
- he tries to establish a relationship with another person
- he tries to befriend somebody
Reasons for Jerry′ s inability to make friends/for his loneliness:
- childhood experiences (no real family life in his youth)
- psychological problems (he cannot deal with other people)
- anonymity/impersonality of a big city
- alienation of the individual in big cities/in modern society
- big gap between the haves and the have-nots
Peter is a middle-class publishing executive with a wife, two daughters, two cats and two parakeets who lives in ignorance of the world outside his settled life. jerry is an isolated and disheartened man who lives in a boarding house and is very play the zoo story.

6. Conclusion
There is a similarity between the way in which animals live in the zoo and the way in which human beings live together/communicate with one another. The play explores themes of isolation, loneliness, social disparity and dehumanisation in a commercial world. The end of the story, Jerry has succeeded in establishing a relationship with another human being (with Peter) under absurd (lethal, suicidal fight; planned "murder-suicide" (after the "story" with the dog Jerry is disillusioned and plans his death carefully) circumstances and for a very short time (at the moment of dying). MAN VS SOCIETY

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The Proposal

Nama : Maula Akhadin
Nim   : A320080273
Class : H

          The Proposal

a. Stepan Stepanovich Chubukov
b. Natalya Stepanovna
c. Ivan Vassilevitch Lomov
Characterization :
a. Stepan Stepanovich Chubukov: 70 years old, a landowner.
b. Natalya Stepanovna: Chubukov’s daughter, 25 years old.
c. Ivan Vassilevitch Lomov: 35 years old, a neighbour of Tschubukov, a large and hearty, but very suspicious landowner.
Plot :
Ivan Vassiliyitch Lomov, a long-time neighbor of Stepan Stepanovitch Chubukov, has come to propose marriage to Chubukov's 25-year-old daughter, Natalia. After he has asked and received joyful permission to marry Natalia, she is invited into the room, and he tries to convey to her the proposal. Lomov is a hypochondriac, and, while trying to make clear his reasons for being there, he gets into an argument with Natalia about The Oxen Meadows, a disputed piece of land between their respective properties, which results in him having "palpitations" and numbness in his leg. After her father notices they are arguing, he joins in, and then sends Ivan out of the house. While Stepan rants about Lomov, he expresses his shock that "this fool dares to make you (Natalia) a proposal of marriage!" This news she immediately starts into hysterics, begging for her father to bring him back. He does, and Natalia and Ivan get into a second big argument, this time about the superiority of their respective hunting dogs, Otkatai and Ugadi. Ivan collapses from his exhaustion over arguing, and father and daughter fear he's died. However, after a few minutes he regains consciousness, and Tschubukov all but forces him and his daughter to accept the proposal with a kiss. Immediately following the kiss, the couple gets into another argument.
Setting :
a. Setting of place : In a country house of Chubukov
b. Setting of time : In the past time
Theme :
The farce explores the process of getting married and could be read as a satire on the upper middle class and courtship.
The play points out the struggle to balance the economic necessities of marriage and what the characters themselves actually want. It shows the characters' desperation for marriage as comical.
In Chekhov's Russia, marriage was a mean of economic stability for most people. They married to gain wealth and possessions or to satisfy social pressure. The satire is conveyed successfully by emphasizing the couple's foolish arguments over small things. The main arguments in the play revolve around The Oxen Meadows and two dogs called Ugadi and Otkatai.
Conclusion :
In Chekhov's Russia, marriage was a means of economic stability for most people. They married to gain wealth and possessions. In this play, the concept of marriage is being satirized to show the real purpose of marriage - materialistic gain rather than true love.
Thus, first, it assumes that there is such a thing as true love and that it is a conception based on the idea that two people are literally meant for each other. Second, it states that these two people, though meant for each other, may have to endure a good deal before they can actually achieve the love they feel.
Man vs. Society :
It is a man vs. society drama because in the proposal drama there are some conflicts among its characters. Moreover in this drama there is no natural event.

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The Death Salesman

Name    : Maula Akhadin
NIM      : A 320080273

Class     : H

The Death of  Salesman

1. The Characters

a. Willy Loman is an individual who craves attention and is governed by a desire   for success and as an aging salesman.
b. Linda Loman Willy Loman's wife. She is Willy's champion and takes it upon herself to reconcile her family.
c. Biff Loman The Lomans' older son. Biff is the only member of the family who knows about Willy's affair, and he resents his father bitterly.
d. Happy Loman The Lomans' younger son. Happy is a womanizer driven by his sexuality.
e. Uncle Ben Willy's older brother. He made a fortune in the African jungle by the time he     was 21 years old.
f. Charley A long-time acquaintance of the Lomans. Charlie is a true friend to Willy, even     though Willy is jealous of him.
g. Bernard Charley's son. He is a successful lawyer.
h. The Woman Willy's former lover, with whom he had an affair many years ago in     Boston.
I. Howard Wagner Willy's current boss. Howard is a businessman, unaffected by the facts     that Willy worked for his father and named him as a child.
j. Jenny Charley's secretary.
k. Stanley A waiter.
l. Miss Forsythe and Letta Young prostitutes.

2. Plot
Most good stories start with a fundamental list of ingredients: the initial situation, conflict, complication, climax, suspense, denouement, and conclusion. Great writers sometimes shake up the recipe and add some spice.

3. Setting
Death of a Salesman takes place in New York and Boston, at a Manhattan restaurant.

4. Style
There is much discussion of whether Death of a Salesman can be considered a tragedy. ‘Tragedy’ as  a form was defined by the Greek playwright Aristotle in 330 BCE. He defined a tragic character . Language , the use of language in Death of a Salesman is entirely Realistic. Miller’s dialogue is carefully constructed to  follow the exact speech patterns of ordinary New Yorkers. It is very dense and fast, with repetitions,  hesitations, and contradictions. The characters often use slang and clich├ęs .

5. Theme/issue
Willy is deteriorating and suicidal, Biff is told to get serious.
Here comes the conflict, right on schedule. Willy’s mental wanderings are getting worse; he is preoccupied with Biff’s aimlessness and inability to find success in business. Linda informs her sons that Willy has been trying to commit suicide and tells Biff that his father’s life is in his hands. Biff needs to get a job and get serious or take the blame for his father’s actions.

6. Conclusion
Biff rejects his father’s misguided dream, but Happy runs with it.
At the conclusion of the play, it is totally clear that Willy was wrong about himself. Not that we ever thought otherwise, but practically no one comes to his funeral. Biff now realizes that his father didn’t know himself and picked the wrong path. He will certainly not follow in his father’s footsteps. Happy, on the other hand, defends his father’s misguided dreams and decides to take them on himself. MAN VS SOCIETY

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The Lesson (Eugene Ionesco)

 Maula Akhadin
A.    320080 273
The Lesson (Eugene Ionesco)

The LeThe Lesson (French: La Lecon) is a one-act play by Eugene Ionesco. It was first performed in 1951 in a production directed by Marcel Cuvelier (who also played the Professor). Claude Mansard played the Maid and Rosette Zuchelli played the Pupil in that production. Since 1957 it has been in permanent production at Paris' Theatre de la Huchette, on an Ionesco double-bill with The Bald Soprano. The play has been regarded as an important work of what some critics have called the "Theatre of the Absurd." 

            The setting of this story mostly is lesson situation between the professor and his pupil.
The Theme
The theme on this play is man between man and society. This play, by Ionesco is a drama that satirizes totalitarianism in education, politics, language, psychology, and sexuality. The end is really the beginning and the inevitable play of wits between youth and age, power and manipulation is staged over and over again as a part of the game of life itself
The play is set in the study of a professor who tutors one student at a time. The way that he teaches these doctorate students proceeds in a manner that becomes completely stifling and controlling. He talks nonsense and expects the student to verbalize what he wants them to say. He eventually kills the student. The maid, a central character in the play continues to warn him not to proceed yet she helps him clean up his mess.

The characters
-    Professor, The Professor is associated as the cleverest and the highest. He is 50 to 60 years old. He is an aggressive person, excessively polite, very timid, his voice deadened by his timidity.
-     The young pupil aged 18. She is a rich person, and fool person but she is attractive.  
-    The Maid, aged 45 to 50. She is stout, patient, red faced. She is always pay attention to the professor.

The young pupil is eager to learn and she dominates the professor with her confidence and youth, but as the story develops.  Even more she is suffering from the professor’s voice and explanation, such as toothache, earache, headache and eyes ache. The maid, Marie, always warns the professor about his “health” and calamity that might happen. Unfortunately the professor, instead of listening to his maid, ignores her every time she warns him. The maid warns him when the professor explains about philology, and again, the professor ignores her. The maid also warns the professor again when he starts asking about ‘knife’ in different languages, but the maid is already tired to warn him. In the end of the play, the professor kills the pupil with an imaginative knife and with the help of his maid he could get rid of her corpse and then the stage is set again with another young pupil who is ready for the lesson. And it is fortieth times his killed.         

  the message and moral value

The story in Ionesco’s The Lesson is a portrayal of nowadays status versus control. In specific terms the ‘professor’ is associated as the cleverest and the highest. Besides, from the progress of the play, the professor underestimates the pupil, who is clever, eager and enthusiastic to learn. in this play the professor is insane. His explanation does not make sense at all when he explains about philology. It seems bizarre when they discussed the subtraction the pupil suddenly becomes stupid, while in fact she is very clever in multiplication.
 From this play, we can see a portrayal of status and control as seen in Indonesia Many professors underestimate their pupils and consider them as people who are ignorant, too much confident and always to parade their knowledge. Meanwhile, the professor himself, in fact, does not make sense and ignorant, too. This is seen from his explanation in philology and how he ignores his maid every time she warns him. In the end, the ‘professor’ kills the ‘pupil’ with his imaginative knife. This kind of phenomenon is also seen in Indonesia. One might remember the advertisement of a cigarette which employs a long memorable phrase: Belum tua, belum boleh bicara. This phenomenon keeps on happening, keeps on being unsolved, and we can do nothing about it.
Its also reminds us to control our emotion when we are in difficult situations and stay calm, not to underestimate to other people, and be open-minded person.

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by William Wordsworth (1770‑1850)

My heart leaps up when I behold
A rainbow in the sky:
So was it when my life began;
So is it now I am a man;
So be it when I shall grow old,
Or let me die!
The Child is father of the Man;
And I could wish my days to be
Bound each to each by natural piety.

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